A temperature sensor is a device used to measure temperature through an electrical signal that requires a thermocouple. This electronic device consists of two dissimilar conductors (different types of metals) joined together at one end, which form electrical junctions at varying temperatures. When the junction of the conductors is heated or cooled, it emits a temperature dependent voltage formed by a thermoelectric effect, which can be used to measure temperature.
German physicist Thomas Seebeck has been credited with discovering the thermoelectric effect. He found that if two ends of a metal were sitting at different temperatures, an electric current would flow through it. He later realized that if he connected the two ends of the metal together, no current flowed. Coincidently, no current flowed if the two ends of the metal were at the same temperature. Seebeck finally used two different metal conductors and found that an electrical current was flowing through. Electrical conductivity paired with thermal conductivity is the sole proprietor in determining how well an electrical current will flow. Thus, the thermoelectric effect was discovered.
Electrons tend to move more freely in certain materials as opposed to others. This is the main difference between conductors and insulators. If you were to connect two different metals together (copper and iron), free electrons will move from one material to the other through a diffusion process. Electrons would move from the iron to the copper, resulting in the copper being more negatively charged and the iron being more positively charged. If one of the junctions was hotter than the other, electrons will readily diffuse between the metals. This means that the voltage at the two junctions will vary depending on their temperature difference.
There are many types of thermocouples such as: type K, J, T, E, N, S, R, B. Type K is the most common and has a wide temperature range. Another thermocouple that’s used frequently is Type J, which, displays a smaller temperature range. For extremely low temperatures, Type T should be used. Type E has a stronger signal and accuracy than Type K at moderate temperature ranges. Type N is a stronger and more expensive version of type K. In scenarios that have high temperatures, use Type S as it is very accurate and stable. Type R is used in high temperature applications and is constructed with a higher percentage of Rhodium. The thermocouple that can process the highest temperatures is Type B. One advantage of Type B is that it maintains a high level of accuracy.
There are some disadvantages of thermocouples. They have a tedious re-calibration system and are a bit difficult to verify. They are also susceptible to electromagnetic interference, also known as radio-frequency interference and can also be costly when trying to repair.
At AFR Enterprises, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all your thermocouple parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at firstname.lastname@example.org or call us at +1-714-705-4780.
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The Aerospace Industry has a new star in the Asian-Pacific— South Korea’s first MRO station, Korea Aviation Engineering and Maintenance Service (KAEMS). As of this month, the station has successfully completed its first “C-Check” on a Boeing 737 jet from Jeju Air and has another in progress on a B737 from Eastar Jet. This MRO station is a notable achievement for the aviation industry in South Korea.
KAEMS was commissioned by Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI), and 6 other Korean investors in December of 2017. The investors have future plans to expand their services to provide components and engine maintenance, gas repair, special equipment, and maintenance repairs for domestic jets and military aircraft. Located in Sa Cheon, in the South Gyeongsang Province, this MRO station has the potential to service a wide range of clients with routes through the Asian Pacific.
Demand for MROs in the Asian-Pacific has increased upwards of 40% since 2014 and is only expected to increase further in the coming years. In anticipation of growth, and to meet current demand, the investors intend for the KAEMS station to provide more than half of MRO service demand in this region by 2026. Until now, MRO service has been dominated entirely by overseas companies.
KAI is already widely known in the U.S. for its partnership with Lockheed Martin on training jets for South Korean military. Since 2016, the two companies have been pursuing a 16 billion USD contract with the U.S. Air Force to provide trainer aircraft. With commercial routes opening in Singapore and Mongolia, the KAEMS station has the potential to provide a great deal of business and notoriety to its investors.
At AFR Enterprises, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find avionic maintenance tooling parts, aircraft maintenance equipment, and avionics tooling parts, new or obsolete. As a premier supplier of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries, we’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7x365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at email@example.com or call us at +1-714-705-4780.
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Avionics testers are facing new challenges as technology evolves. Some of these challenges include cyber protection, fiber optics, productivity, versatility, size, and no-fault-founds (NFFs). Avionics are any electronics applied to aviation. Cyber security is becoming increasingly important as technology advances because there is an increase in the ability to hack information or install viruses. Hacking refers to the act of gaining unauthorized access to data in a system or computer and viruses corrupt the systems data.
There are different stages within testing in which the information needs to be protected. When systems and subsystems are taken off of an aircraft, they are placed on trays and connected to aircraft testing equipment. Avionics bus and network test instruments need to be protected so they are not hacked when information is stored in the tester or when it communicates information to other systems. More avionics test equipment will be added to an aircraft as they decrease in size and increase in efficiency; these systems will also need to be protected from infections and hacking.
An NFF is a response from a repair station or original equipment manufacturer (OEM) when a component that has failed in flight is tested and no failure has been found. NFFs are becoming more common as technology becomes increasingly more complex. Some of the common factors that cause NFF are inaccurate in-flight or line maintenance diagnosis, multiple removals of equipment that surround the failure, inaccurate or incomplete testing at repair stations or OEMs, the inability to test equipment in the environment in which it is used, and the failure to check for a connector failure.
Automation and versatile equipment will be used more to improve productivity, create greater situational awareness, and reduce operating costs. However, the challenge is reducing the chance of human error when interacting with these systems— whether it’s the pilot or the maintenance repair technician. Implementing systems that are capable of integrating multiple complex components and simplifying them to reduce human error is difficult. It is also imperative to create systems that can handle multiple failures, unexpected problems, and situations that require deviations from standard operating procedures (SOPs). Creating these systems is particularly challenging when considering that they cannot always be tested in the same environment in which they will be operating.
Aircraft manufacturers have started integrating fiber optics into aircraft design, primarily for communication. The gradual switch from copper wire to fiber optics has increased efficiency; it can transmit more information in less time and over longer distances. Fiber optic cables are also lighter, decreasing the weight added to an aircraft. One of the challenges in using fiber optics is that the optical transceiver ages quickly when used in high shock and vibration levels or extreme temperatures. Another challenge is that the amount of optical signal available on the receiving end may be small. In order to combat this, there is aviation testing equipment that alternates testing between avionics boxes and test instruments, testing all sending and receiving ports.
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On December 3rd, researchers from Intel Corporation and UC Berkeley published a paper in the popular science journal Nature, proposing an idea for a new kind of memory and logic circuit which could be 10 to 100 times more energy-efficient than current microprocessors. The microprocessors we have today are based off complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS). These new devices are magneto-electric spin-orbit (MESO) and feature five times more logic operations than their older counterparts.
The MESOs will have the capability to advance current technologies with higher computing power while using less energy. These devices will be used most frequently in machinery like drones and self-driving cars. But, as Sasikanth Manipatruni, who leads hardware development for the MESO project at Intel’s Components Research Group puts it,
“As CMOS develops into its maturity, we will basically have very powerful technology options that see us through. In some ways, this could continue computing improvements for another whole generation of people.”
The researchers go on to describe how they were able to reduce the voltage required for multiferroic magneto-electric switching from 3 volts down to 500 millivolts. This is a reduction to only 1/6th the original voltage, which means a lot less energy is being used.
Multiferroics are materials which exhibit more than one ferric property: ferromagnetism, ferroelectricity, and ferroelasticity. MESO is a multiferroic material because it contains bismuth, iron, and oxygen (BiFeO3), which is a combination of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric states. Researchers believe it is important to take advantage of these two states together by altering the magnetic field because in doing so, you can change the MESO’s entire magnetic state.
Intel and Berkeley’s researchers are working hard to create technology which is not just bigger and better, but that will be innovative enough to propel us into a more sustainable and energy-efficient future. And with the creation of the MESO, they believe they’ve taken the first step to do just that.
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Aircraft maintenance is crucial, especially in the winter when the colder temperatures bring inconveniences and risks to your aircraft. So, it’s good to get head and make sure that your aircraft is ready. Here are some things to consider when preparing your aircraft for the best, and worst, time of the year. It’s crucial to wash, wax, and detail your aircraft. Once the snow comes in, it’ll be difficult to clean off the residual bugs, dirt, and oxidation on your plane. Since snow and ice easily cling onto pre-existing surface contaminants, it’s important to wash and wax because a waxed exterior will shed ice and snow. You should also use aircraft-specific window cleaner and polish to protect and seal aircraft windows.
Don’t forget to change your engine’s oil to remove harmful acids and contaminants. Use a thinner oil and consider anti-corrosive additives to make sure that while you’re flying less, you’re still making sure that your aircraft is in perfect condition for the colder temperatures. Lubrication is also important. Most aircraft owners don’t realize that their aircraft maintenance manuals have a lubrication schedule and chart that details when and how to apply aircraft lubrication. Lubricants like grease and oil are your best bet against excessive wear and corrosion.
After you check the exterior and oil, you need to look at the batteries and check that they’re working at full-capacity. Make sure to replace every battery, not just the aircraft’s main battery. Doing so will increase the safety of flying in extremely cold weather. Another thing you’ll have to check and inspect is the heating system, because most likely your aircraft heating system hasn’t been used in months. You need to ensure that the combustion heater is safe and ready.
And lastly, make sure that you’re stocked with the necessities. Extra batteries, oil, flashlights, water bottles, and the like should be evaluated and replenished as needed. Reload your aircraft with only the necessities. But don’t forget your hot chocolate, and remember, flying in the winter is daunting, but will be lot of fun with just a little extra preparation.
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Transistors have been an integral part of computing for many years and are the foundation of all microchip technology. Transistors have been scaled down in size to nano-levels to where we can fit billions of electronic transistors on a single microchip. However, there’s a limit. So, what’s next? Memristors. Memristors have much more capacity to improve power and performance far beyond what transistors are capable of. They pack more power in a smaller area, have less power needs, and are resistant to radiation.
UK universities have been working on creating memristor design tools. Their research will hopefully make it so memristors can be commercialized. The commercialization of memristors will be reliant on these universities’ research to make prices reasonable and make it so that they work with existing electronic transistors. This is vital because many companies will not replace transistor factories with memristor factories. With the uncertainty of current methods to produce the memristor, the investment to make these factories will be stalled until the research is completed. The target for these goals is 3 years.
The integration of memristors will be the primary catalyst for commercializing them, the importance of electronic microprocessors is still present even with emerging technologies like memristors. Microprocessors seem to be one of the keys to this technology being commercialized. The other key component to its success is ReRAM. This is important because “Resistance Random Access Memory” uses less energy and has reduced latency, drastically improving performance.
Due to the exciting future of microprocessors and its components, including transistors and memristors, demand will increase on both. Many companies will be searching for transistor-based microprocessors once memristors emerge as the new tech.
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Industry heavy-hitters The Boeing Company and Safran SA have recently started combining their capabilities, resulting in new auxiliary power units (APUs); APUs are onboard engines used to start the main engines, as well as power aircraft systems on the ground and in flight. Safran has already been in the business of APU-making, but now with the addition of The Boeing Co, they are sure to demand more of the market share from rivals Honeywell and UTC –the two leading manufacturers of this part.
Not only will this 50/50 venture benefit Safran Group, but it will also put Boeing in a better position as they strive to branch into more profitable services. As Boeing CFO Greg Smith put it,
“This move will strengthen Boeing’s vertical capabilities as we continue to expand our services portfolio and make strategic investments that accelerate our growth plans”
Boeing recently acquired aerospace parts company, KLX Inc, furthering their expansion into the aircraft services market.
Stan Deal, President and CEO of Boeing Global Services commented that
“This strategic partnership will leverage Boeing's deep customer and airplane knowledge along with Safran's experience in designing and producing complex propulsion assemblies to deliver expanded, innovative services solutions to our customers."
Currently, Boeing and Airbus SE are in competition to widen margins of third-party suppliers that typically dominate the repairs and services market.
Safran has also held a partnership with General Electric Co, allowing them both to make the LEAP-1B engines that go on Boeing’s 737 MAX. Prior to this partnership’s fruition, Safran had been supplying Boeing with an extensive range of components for their commercial and defense programs; this made it evident a partnership would bode well for both involved parties.
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As IT hardware devices become more powerful, the need for cooling systems through IC motor parts are becoming more important. Refusing to upgrade electronic components such as cooling parts, hardware systems is at risk of overheating, causing damage. With heavy application use, making sure IC motor parts, Toshiba electrical parts, and electronic parts from Toshiba should be up to date, ensuring proper usage and longevity of hardware systems.
Toshiba Electronics has recently made improvements to fan motor IC. Toshiba is a leading electronics company that specializes in electrical parts and electronic components. The fan motor is a key electrical component to hardware systems in many different applications. The newly designed fan motor offers a more robust fan that can spin faster, increasing its RPM (revolutions per minute). As the motor provides a higher and much smoother output, the fans of the motor is able to turn much faster-the fan is now able to deliver a much more powerful cooling effect when installed.
Not only does Toshiba electrical parts, it offers state of the are IC motor parts, that has been tested and proven through intensive research and development. Toshiba has years of experience in the computer industry and many large organizations purchase electronic components from Toshiba. Coming up with a more powerful IC motor parts is just an example of what Toshiba can provide to applications and hardware devices. This new electronic component can run longer and faster with using less power. The simply designed new motor part is designed for maximum efficiency.
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In early April of this year, Intel Corporation released their newest core processors, the 8th Generation. The main target audience for this new, and more powerful core, is hardcore PC users. These would be customers who use their computers day in and day out, for business or pleasure, and need a solid core processor to get them through the day.
These new 8th Generation processors come built with an innovated Intel Octane memory and the ability to handle multiple platforms. There was also a new option, released around the same time, titled Data Drive Acceleration and combined the two can load videos, pictures and video games and an increased speed.
These new releases help to bulk up Intel’s current line and make sure that all the needs of their customers can be met. The newest processors, whether i5, i7 or i9, allow video streaming in high definition to be quicker and for video editing to be smoother. The 8th Generation Core processor comes with a WiFi speed that is, on average, 2 times quicker than most.
The business 8th Generation Core options are extremely fast and are about to support immersive 3d graphics and applications. This option will be built into business focused laptops from multiple companies.
This newest addition to Intel’s lineup really shows how versatile this company is. They know how to create a product that their customers can rely on and look forward to using each and every day. Keep on the lookout for even more updates from Intel in regards to their newest core processor.
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Analog Devices and Microsemi Corporation have recently collaborated and introduced the first ever high-power evaluation board for the half-bridge SiC power modules. These evaluation boards will go up to 1200 V and 50 A at a two hundred kHz switching frequency. This new isolated board has been produced to upgrade design reliability and lowering the need for the production of additional prototypes. This will maximize time, lower costs, and reduce the time needed to market towards power conversion and energy storage customers.
The upgraded isolated board can be used as the building block for topologies that are more complex. This includes full bridge or multi-level converters. The new board can also serve as a final evaluation form or as a “in converter-like” configuration to be used for full tests and evaluations of Analog Devices’. These Analog Devices’ include the ADuM4135, which is an isolated gate driver that uses iCoupler digital isolation technology and the LT3999 DC-DC driver using a high-powered system.
The new, high-powered evaluation board allows for the SiC power modules made by Microsemi to supply benefits like a common bench test, heightened power density to reduce size and cost. This also provides an isolated substrate that is a conductive substrate and a minimum parasitic capacity that allows for greater efficiency, better performance, and good thermal management. These characteristics allow for the board to be compatible for applications that include charging for electrical vehicles, hybrids, DC-DC converters, power supplies with switched modes, aviation actuation systems, motor control that is high-powered, MRIs and X-Rays, plasma and semi cap equipment, and lasers and welding.
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