Pressure transducers have never been more prevalent, or more reliable. With stainless steel construction and modern engineering, pressure transducers can provide overpressure protection, improved total error band, and negligible orientation and vibration effects. They are ideal for long-term use in harsh environments of extreme temperature, humidity, and vibration. However, pressure transducers can fail like any other piece of equipment. Common causes include improper wiring, incorrect polarity, inadequate power supply, multiple grounds, short circuits, operations issues, and problems with the transducer itself. In this blog, we’ll explore some trouble-shooting techniques that can help you determine just what went wrong with your transducer.

Before we begin, however, these troubleshooting guidelines assume that the person following them is a trained technician, has access to a 24 VDC power source, and knows how to properly use a digital multimeter to measure resistance, current, and voltage.

When trouble-shooting a 3-wire transducer, the most commonly used voltage transducer, the problem is most likely that there is no signal or that the signal is different from what is expected. After removing the transducer from the pipeline and control circuit, the technician needs to identify all terminals for the unit being examined. Once terminal configuration is confirmed, the technician can power the unit and check if the transmitter is operating properly through placing the voltmeter + onto the +_ signal and vice versa for the - components. If the readings are what the technician expected, then the transducer is operational.

When the 3-wire transducer is still attached to a pipeline, make sure that the +24 VDC is connected to the transducer’s + excitation, and the -24 VDC to the common. Then, disconnect the wire that runs from the transducer’s + signal to the control circuit. Place to voltmeter’s + lead onto the transducer’s + signal, and the voltmeter’s - onto common. With no pressure applied, the transmitter should provide a voltage output that is specified on the unit’s data sheet. If it does, then the transducer is functioning properly.

When troubleshooting a 4-wire transducer that has been removed from the pipeline, as well as its control circuit and terminal configuration, the technician can power the unit by connecting the +24 VDC power supply to the transducer’s + excitation and -24 VDC to the - excitation. Once the voltmeter is connected to the correct signal and no pressure is applied, the voltemeter should provide a reading that is equal to the analog signal for zero applied pressure.

When troubleshooting a 4-wire transducer that is still connected to a pipeline, disconnect the wire that runs from the transmitter’s + signal to the control circuit. Next, place the digital voltmeter leads onto the matching transducer signal. If the transmitter provides a voltage output as specified by the unit’s data sheet, then the transmitter is operational. However, if the transmitter reads 0.0 VDC, it may not be functioning, and further troubleshooting will need to be conducted.


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For many, circular connectors have become a go-to solution for automation systems because of their benefits over hardwired systems. Circular connectors are easy to use, compact in size, adaptable, and rugged enough for outdoor use. One particularly popular type of connector is the M23 connector.

The M23 connector is frequently used due to its robust design and customizable nature. Like most connectors, M23s come in male and female plugs and sockets, with power pin-outs that come in six, eight, nine, and ten poles, and signal pin-outs that come in six, seven, nine, twelve, sixteen, seventeen, and nineteen poles, and typically use orange jackets as power cables and green jackets for signals. An M23 connector can handle voltages of up to 200 V and currents of up to 8 A and has an IP67 rating. This means that it can be dropped in a body of water up to a meter deep, stay submerged for up to half an hour, and maintain functionality.

Made of nickel-plated brass, nickel-plated zinc, or a copper-zinc alloy, the M23 can also come in a variety of housings including straight connectors, right angle connectors, and panel mounts. In addition to the standard screw connection, M23 connectors are also available in the TWILOCK and TWILOCK-S quick connect system. Some manufacturers also include anti-vibration locks that prevent connectors from loosening and providing permanently sealed connections. This in turn means there is no need for re-tightening or checking if the connectors have come loose.

M23s are used in a wide variety of applications including motors, encoders, motion controllers, robotics, and conveyors. The M23 can operate in temperatures ranging from -40 degrees Fahrenheit all the way up to 257 degrees, allowing it to be used in a wide variety of demanding environments, and fulfill the needs for control signal and power transmission in a robust and compact delivery system.


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For many, circular connectors have become a go-to solution for automation systems because of their benefits over hardwired systems. Circular connectors are easy to use, compact in size, adaptable, and rugged enough for outdoor use. One particularly popular type of connector is the M23 connector.

The M23 connector is frequently used due to its robust design and customizable nature. Like most connectors, M23s come in male and female plugs and sockets, with power pin-outs that come in six, eight, nine, and ten poles, and signal pin-outs that come in six, seven, nine, twelve, sixteen, seventeen, and nineteen poles, and typically use orange jackets as power cables and green jackets for signals. An M23 connector can handle voltages of up to 200 V and currents of up to 8 A and has an IP67 rating. This means that it can be dropped in a body of water up to a meter deep, stay submerged for up to half an hour, and maintain functionality.

Made of nickel-plated brass, nickel-plated zinc, or a copper-zinc alloy, the M23 can also come in a variety of housings including straight connectors, right angle connectors, and panel mounts. In addition to the standard screw connection, M23 connectors are also available in the TWILOCK and TWILOCK-S quick connect system. Some manufacturers also include anti-vibration locks that prevent connectors from loosening and providing permanently sealed connections. This in turn means there is no need for re-tightening or checking if the connectors have come loose.

M23s are used in a wide variety of applications including motors, encoders, motion controllers, robotics, and conveyors. The M23 can operate in temperatures ranging from -40 degrees Fahrenheit all the way up to 257 degrees, allowing it to be used in a wide variety of demanding environments, and fulfill the needs for control signal and power transmission in a robust and compact delivery system.


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Keeping the engine in any aircraft cool is a critical part of maintaining performance and safety. For piston-powered aircraft, this means using a system of baffles and baffle seals to regulate airflow through the engine compartment.

In early aviation history, where aircraft were powered by uncovered radial engines, cooling was provided by having the engine’s cylinders exposed to slipstream as the plane flew. This method, known as “velocity cooling,” was good enough for low-powered radial engines. However, velocity cooling is insufficient for higher-powered and horizontally opposed engines, which are long enough that the rear cylinders get far less air than the ones closer to the front. Aeronautical engineers soon developed a new process for cooling, called pressure cooling.

The process begins at the nose of the airplane where air flows in through openings in the nose bowl (this is because engines in modern aircraft are tightly cowled to protect against the elements). Once inside, a system of rigid aluminum baffles and flexible baffle seals made from rubber work together to create a chamber of high pressure above the engine’s cylinders and a chamber of low pressure below the cylinders and behind the engines. Heat naturally rises up from the engines into the high-pressure chamber even as the baffle seals direct air from the high-pressure area to the low-pressure area. This creates an airflow that travels from top to bottom and ultimately back out the airplane through openings in the cowl.

An important component of maintaining a healthy engine temperature is making sure the baffle seals are up to date and functioning properly. Baffle seals become loose and brittle with age and eventually, can’t keep air from leaking past the seal. A warning sign for weak baffle seals is abnormally high cylinder-head temperature or oil temperature. A simple visual inspection by lifting up the engine cowl should reveal any flaws or defects in a baffle seal. Older examples tend to be thin and black, while newer seals made of rubber silicone are typically reddish orange.

At AFR Enterprises, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the baffles and baffle seals for the civil and defense aerospace and aviation industries. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at purchase@afrenterprises.com or call us at 1-714-705-4780.


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A temperature sensor is a device used to measure temperature through an electrical signal that requires a thermocouple. This electronic device consists of two dissimilar conductors (different types of metals) joined together at one end, which form electrical junctions at varying temperatures. When the junction of the conductors is heated or cooled, it emits a temperature dependent voltage formed by a thermoelectric effect, which can be used to measure temperature.

German physicist Thomas Seebeck has been credited with discovering the thermoelectric effect. He found that if two ends of a metal were sitting at different temperatures, an electric current would flow through it. He later realized that if he connected the two ends of the metal together, no current flowed. Coincidently, no current flowed if the two ends of the metal were at the same temperature. Seebeck finally used two different metal conductors and found that an electrical current was flowing through. Electrical conductivity paired with thermal conductivity is the sole proprietor in determining how well an electrical current will flow. Thus, the thermoelectric effect was discovered.

Electrons tend to move more freely in certain materials as opposed to others. This is the main difference between conductors and insulators. If you were to connect two different metals together (copper and iron), free electrons will move from one material to the other through a diffusion process. Electrons would move from the iron to the copper, resulting in the copper being more negatively charged and the iron being more positively charged. If one of the junctions was hotter than the other, electrons will readily diffuse between the metals. This means that the voltage at the two junctions will vary depending on their temperature difference.

There are many types of thermocouples such as: type K, J, T, E, N, S, R, B. Type K is the most common and has a wide temperature range. Another thermocouple that’s used frequently is Type J, which, displays a smaller temperature range. For extremely low temperatures, Type T should be used. Type E has a stronger signal and accuracy than Type K at moderate temperature ranges. Type N is a stronger and more expensive version of type K. In scenarios that have high temperatures, use Type S as it is very accurate and stable. Type R is used in high temperature applications and is constructed with a higher percentage of Rhodium. The thermocouple that can process the highest temperatures is Type B. One advantage of Type B is that it maintains a high level of accuracy.

There are some disadvantages of thermocouples. They have a tedious re-calibration system and are a bit difficult to verify. They are also susceptible to electromagnetic interference, also known as radio-frequency interference and can also be costly when trying to repair.

At AFR Enterprises, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all your thermocouple parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@afrenterprises.com or call us at +1-714-705-4780.


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The Aerospace Industry has a new star in the Asian-Pacific— South Korea’s first MRO station, Korea Aviation Engineering and Maintenance Service (KAEMS). As of this month, the station has successfully completed its first “C-Check” on a Boeing 737 jet from Jeju Air and has another in progress on a B737 from Eastar Jet. This MRO station is a notable achievement for the aviation industry in South Korea.

KAEMS was commissioned by Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI), and 6 other Korean investors in December of 2017. The investors have future plans to expand their services to provide components and engine maintenance, gas repair, special equipment, and maintenance repairs for domestic jets and military aircraft. Located in Sa Cheon, in the South Gyeongsang Province, this MRO station has the potential to service a wide range of clients with routes through the Asian Pacific.

Demand for MROs in the Asian-Pacific has increased upwards of 40% since 2014 and is only expected to increase further in the coming years. In anticipation of growth, and to meet current demand, the investors intend for the KAEMS station to provide more than half of MRO service demand in this region by 2026. Until now, MRO service has been dominated entirely by overseas companies.

KAI is already widely known in the U.S. for its partnership with Lockheed Martin on training jets for South Korean military. Since 2016, the two companies have been pursuing a 16 billion USD contract with the U.S. Air Force to provide trainer aircraft. With commercial routes opening in Singapore and Mongolia, the KAEMS station has the potential to provide a great deal of business and notoriety to its investors.

At AFR Enterprises, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find avionic maintenance tooling parts, aircraft maintenance equipment, and avionics tooling parts, new or obsolete. As a premier supplier of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries, we’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7x365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@afrenterprises.com or call us at +1-714-705-4780.


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Avionics testers are facing new challenges as technology evolves. Some of these challenges include cyber protection, fiber optics, productivity, versatility, size, and no-fault-founds (NFFs). Avionics are any electronics applied to aviation. Cyber security is becoming increasingly important as technology advances because there is an increase in the ability to hack information or install viruses. Hacking refers to the act of gaining unauthorized access to data in a system or computer and viruses corrupt the systems data.

There are different stages within testing in which the information needs to be protected. When systems and subsystems are taken off of an aircraft, they are placed on trays and connected to aircraft testing equipment. Avionics bus and network test instruments need to be protected so they are not hacked when information is stored in the tester or when it communicates information to other systems. More avionics test equipment will be added to an aircraft as they decrease in size and increase in efficiency; these systems will also need to be protected from infections and hacking.

An NFF is a response from a repair station or original equipment manufacturer (OEM) when a component that has failed in flight is tested and no failure has been found. NFFs are becoming more common as technology becomes increasingly more complex. Some of the common factors that cause NFF are inaccurate in-flight or line maintenance diagnosis, multiple removals of equipment that surround the failure, inaccurate or incomplete testing at repair stations or OEMs, the inability to test equipment in the environment in which it is used, and the failure to check for a connector failure.

Automation and versatile equipment will be used more to improve productivity, create greater situational awareness, and reduce operating costs. However, the challenge is reducing the chance of human error when interacting with these systems— whether it’s the pilot or the maintenance repair technician. Implementing systems that are capable of integrating multiple complex components and simplifying them to reduce human error is difficult. It is also imperative to create systems that can handle multiple failures, unexpected problems, and situations that require deviations from standard operating procedures (SOPs). Creating these systems is particularly challenging when considering that they cannot always be tested in the same environment in which they will be operating.

Aircraft manufacturers have started integrating fiber optics into aircraft design, primarily for communication. The gradual switch from copper wire to fiber optics has increased efficiency; it can transmit more information in less time and over longer distances. Fiber optic cables are also lighter, decreasing the weight added to an aircraft. One of the challenges in using fiber optics is that the optical transceiver ages quickly when used in high shock and vibration levels or extreme temperatures. Another challenge is that the amount of optical signal available on the receiving end may be small. In order to combat this, there is aviation testing equipment that alternates testing between avionics boxes and test instruments, testing all sending and receiving ports.


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On December 3rd, researchers from Intel Corporation and UC Berkeley published a paper in the popular science journal Nature, proposing an idea for a new kind of memory and logic circuit which could be 10 to 100 times more energy-efficient than current microprocessors. The microprocessors we have today are based off complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS). These new devices are magneto-electric spin-orbit (MESO) and feature five times more logic operations than their older counterparts.

The MESOs will have the capability to advance current technologies with higher computing power while using less energy. These devices will be used most frequently in machinery like drones and self-driving cars. But, as Sasikanth Manipatruni, who leads hardware development for the MESO project at Intel’s Components Research Group puts it,

“As CMOS develops into its maturity, we will basically have very powerful technology options that see us through. In some ways, this could continue computing improvements for another whole generation of people.”

The researchers go on to describe how they were able to reduce the voltage required for multiferroic magneto electric switching from 3 volts down to 500 millivolts. This is a reduction to only 1/6th the original voltage, which means a lot less energy is being used.

Multiferroics are materials which exhibit more than one ferric property: ferromagnetism, ferroelectricity, and ferroelasticity. MESO is a multiferroic material because it contains bismuth, iron, and oxygen (BiFeO3), which is a combination of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric states. Researchers believe it is important to take advantage of these two states together by altering the magnetic field because in doing so, you can change the MESO’s entire magnetic state.

Intel and Berkeley’s researchers are working hard to create technology which is not just bigger and better, but that will be innovative enough to propel us into a more sustainable and energy-efficient future. And with the creation of the MESO, they believe they’ve taken the first step to do just that.


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Aircraft maintenance is crucial, especially in the winter when the colder temperatures bring inconveniences and risks to your aircraft. So, it’s good to get head and make sure that your aircraft is ready. Here are some things to consider when preparing your aircraft for the best, and worst, time of the year. It’s crucial to wash, wax, and detail your aircraft. Once the snow comes in, it’ll be difficult to clean off the residual bugs, dirt, and oxidation on your plane. Since snow and ice easily cling onto pre-existing surface contaminants, it’s important to wash and wax because a waxed exterior will shed ice and snow. You should also use aircraft-specific window cleaner and polish to protect and seal aircraft windows.

Don’t forget to change your engine’s oil to remove harmful acids and contaminants. Use a thinner oil and consider anti-corrosive additives to make sure that while you’re flying less, you’re still making sure that your aircraft is in perfect condition for the colder temperatures. Lubrication is also important. Most aircraft owners don’t realize that their aircraft maintenance manuals have a lubrication schedule and chart that details when and how to apply aircraft lubrication. Lubricants like grease and oil are your best bet against excessive wear and corrosion.

After you check the exterior and oil, you need to look at the batteries and check that they’re working at full-capacity. Make sure to replace every battery, not just the aircraft’s main battery. Doing so will increase the safety of flying in extremely cold weather. Another thing you’ll have to check and inspect is the heating system, because most likely your aircraft heating system hasn’t been used in months. You need to ensure that the combustion heater is safe and ready.

And lastly, make sure that you’re stocked with the necessities. Extra aircraft batteries, oil, flashlights, water bottles, and the like should be evaluated and replenished as needed. Reload your aircraft with only the necessities. But don’t forget your hot chocolate, and remember, flying in the winter is daunting, but will be lot of fun with just a little extra preparation.


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Transistors have been an integral part of computing for many years and are the foundation of all microchip technology. Transistors have been scaled down in size to nano-levels to where we can fit billions of electronic transistors on a single microchip. However, there’s a limit. So, what’s next? Memristors. Memristors have much more capacity to improve power and performance far beyond what transistors are capable of. They pack more power in a smaller area, have less power needs, and are resistant to radiation.

UK universities have been working on creating memristor design tools. Their research will hopefully make it so memristors can be commercialized. The commercialization of memristors will be reliant on these universities’ research to make prices reasonable and make it so that they work with existing electronic transistors. This is vital because many companies will not replace transistor factories with memristor factories. With the uncertainty of current methods to produce the memristor, the investment to make these factories will be stalled until the research is completed. The target for these goals is 3 years.

The integration of memristors will be the primary catalyst for commercializing them, the importance of electronic microprocessors is still present even with emerging technologies like memristors. Microprocessors seem to be one of the keys to this technology being commercialized. The other key component to its success is ReRAM. This is important because “Resistance Random Access Memory” uses less energy and has reduced latency, drastically improving performance.

Due to the exciting future of microprocessors and its components, including transistors and memristors, demand will increase on both. Many companies will be searching for transistor-based microprocessors once memristors emerge as the new tech.


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